3.1 Overview


As we describe in Part 2: Context, New Zealand is much more diverse than many people assume. New Zealand is home to people from over 213 different ethnic groups and who speak over 150 languages (including the three official languages – English, te reo Māori and New Zealand sign language).


Subject to the continuing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, immigration to New Zealand is projected to remain high for some years due to New Zealand’s ageing population, workforce requirements and the desire to create opportunities to develop international linkages in an increasingly globalised trade environment. Similarly refugees will continue to arrive on our shores due to overseas conflicts.


In this chapter we consider how relevant Public sector agencies have responded to this, focusing on diversity and inclusion within the Public sector and its capability and capacity to work with communities.


We discuss these topics under the following headings:

  1. Political sector leadership and public discussion.
  2. Public sector leadership and coordination.
  3. Diversity within the Public sector.
  4. Cultural competency within the Public sector.
  5. Role of the education system in embracing diversity.
  6. Developments post-15 March 2019.


3.2 Political leadership and public discussion


Prior to 15 March 2020, the role of the minister of state services (renamed to the minister for the public service in 2020) was to oversee the Public service system, ensuring that the work of the Public service aligned with overall government priorities, machinery of government matters, integrity and conduct, leadership and capability development and support for system-wide employment relations.


The minister for ethnic communities (renamed minister for diversity, inclusion and ethnic communities in 2020) was responsible for leading the government’s policies on ethnic diversity by supporting ethnic communities to maximise the benefits of ethnic diversity for New Zealand. A feature of this ministerial portfolio was engaging directly and regularly with ethnic communities across New Zealand.


There has been limited public discussion on diversity and the economic and social benefits that it brings. What discussion there has been has focused on the gender pay gap, equal representation for women and diversity in senior leadership positions within the Public sector. Prior to 15 March 2019 there had been limited national dialogue on encouraging and adopting common values and inclusive social norms, including how to uphold New Zealand’s bicultural foundations while embracing New Zealand’s increasing multicultural communities as a strength. This is despite the Speech from the Throne in 2017 indicating “[t]his government aspires for this to be a country where all are accepted, no matter who they are, where they come from, how they live or what their religious beliefs are”.47


The limited nature of any national dialogue on diversity was raised with us by communities, domestic and international experts and our Muslim Community Reference Group.


3.3 Public sector leadership and coordination

Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission


Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission (formerly the State Services Commission that was renamed in August 2020) has a lead role in ensuring that Public sector agencies are building and maintaining a workforce with the capabilities to respond to an increasingly diverse New Zealand.


Human Rights Commission


The Human Rights Commission’s role is discussed in Part 2: Context. In relation to diversity it works for a free, fair, safe and just New Zealand, where diversity is valued and harmonious relations between individuals and among the diverse groups in New Zealand is encouraged. The Human Rights Commission states that:

Harmonious race relations depend on the equal enjoyment of human rights by all, regardless of ethnic or national origins or skin colour. Harmonious race relations refer to the ways in which peoples who are ethnically diverse positively interact with one another. Such positive interaction is based on mutual respect for, and realisation of, each other’s rights, non-discrimination, and the recognition of and support for cultural diversity.48


Since its 2012 report A fair go for all? Rite tahi tātou katoa? Addressing Structural Discrimination in Public Services, the Human Rights Commission has undertaken several projects to promote harmonious race relations. In 2016 it developed the first public campaign against racism – Give Nothing to Racism: That’s Us. It had also developed practical guidance and tools to help people to stand up to and eliminate racism.


Additional Human Rights Commission projects include monitoring the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and supporting the Race Unit Speech Awards and Hui (a platform for senior high school students to express their ideas on how to improve race relations in New Zealand).49


Public sector agencies focused on the wellbeing of diverse communities


There are several Public sector agencies that focus on enabling and supporting the wellbeing of diverse New Zealand communities:

  1. The Ministry for Pacific Peoples provides advice and support to the minister for pacific peoples. It is the government’s principal advisor on improving outcomes for Pasifika people and communities. The Ministry is a government department, led by a chief executive. The Ministry has 49.5 full-time equivalent staff spread across its offices in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch.
  2. The Ministry for Women provides advice and support to the minister for women. It is the government’s principal advisor on achieving better results for women. It also manages New Zealand’s international reporting obligations on the status of women and provides women nominees for appointment to state sector boards and committees. It is a government department led by a chief executive. The Ministry has approximately 30 full-time equivalent staff. It is located in Wellington.
  3. The Ministry of Youth Development provides advice and support to the minister for youth. It is the government’s principal advisor on supporting and increasing the wellbeing of young people aged between 12 and 24 years old. The Ministry is a business unit within the Ministry of Social Development and it is led by a fourth tier general manager reporting to the group general manager for community partnerships and programmes who then reports to a deputy chief executive. The Ministry of Youth Development currently has 17.1 full-time equivalent staff. It is located in Wellington.
  4. The Office of Ethnic Communities provides advice and support to the minister for ethnic communities. We discuss the Office of Ethnic Communities in detail in chapter 2.
  5. The Office of Senior Citizens provides advice and support to the minister for seniors. It is the government’s principal advisor on the issues and concerns of older people, such as social isolation and elder abuse. The Office of Senior Citizens is a business unit within the Ministry of Social Development and is led by fourth tier director of the Office for Seniors reporting to the general manager, seniors and international policy who reports to a deputy chief executive. The Office of Senior Citizens has six full-time equivalent staff. It is located in Wellington.
  6. Te Arawhiti – Office for Māori Crown Relations provides advice and support to the minister for Māori Crown relations: Te Arawhiti and the minister for Treaty of Waitangi negotiations. Its role and responsibilities are to develop the relationship between Māori and the Crown and to ensure that the Crown meets its Te Tiriti o Waitangi settlement commitments. Te Arawhiti is a departmental agency hosted by the Ministry of Justice and is led by a chief executive. Te Arawhiti currently has 242 full-time equivalent staff. It is located in Wellington.  
  7. Te Puni Kōkiri – Ministry of Māori Development provides advice and support to the minister for Māori development. It is the government’s principal policy advisor on issues relating to Māori wellbeing and development. Te Puni Kōkiri is a government department led by a chief executive. It has 385 full-time equivalent staff, a national office and 17 regional and local offices.


Five of these Public sector agencies are small. They all have broad responsibilities. They partner with a wide range of organisations within the Public sector, and with communities, the private sector and civil society in order to maximise their impact and influence. They tend to focus on a small number of priorities where the biggest difference for that community can be made. It requires careful choices about how, where and when they become involved in particular issues.


International examples


Many countries’ ethnic and religious demographics have changed and continue to do so. It is worth noting how some countries provide strategic and policy leadership to support their increasingly diverse populations:

  1. Canada – the Department of Canadian Heritage is made up of five sectors – Cultural Affairs, Sport, Community and Identity, Official Languages, and Strategic Policy, Planning and Corporate Affairs. It reports to the Minister of Canadian Heritage, the Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages, and the Minister of Diversity and Inclusion and Youth. The Department plays “a vital role in the cultural, civic and economic life of Canadians” by developing policies and programmes promoting “an environment where Canadians can experience dynamic cultural expressions, celebrate [their] history and heritage and build strong communities”.50 Other population-specific agencies focus on the needs of particular groups including Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada, Indigenous Services Canada, National Seniors Council, Women and Gender Equality Canada and Youth.
  2. Norway – the Ministry of Culture is responsible for policy relating to culture, equality and discrimination, copyright, the media, sport and the voluntary sector, and reports to the Minister of Culture and Equality. Within this Ministry is the Department for Equality, Non-discrimination and International Affairs, which has sectoral and coordination responsibility for equality and non-discrimination policy and the implementation of international conventions, international cooperation in relevant fields, equality and non-discrimination legislation, cultural diversity and general international cultural matters.51 The Ministry of Culture recently released The Norwegian Government’s Action Plan against Racism and Discrimination on the Grounds of Ethnicity and Religion 2020-2023.52 The action plan includes a range of actions for the Ministry of Culture, working in conjunction with other relevant ministries, to strengthen efforts to fight against racism and discrimination.
  3. Australia – the Department of Home Affairs is responsible for multiculturalism policy and monitoring, with the aspiration that:

Australia is a prosperous, safe and united country. Our inclusive national identity is built around our shared values including democracy, freedom, equal opportunity and individual responsibility.

To support this, the Department of Home Affairs works with state governments and population-specific agencies such as Veterans’ Affairs, National Indigenous Australians Agency, Torres Strait Regional Authority and the Workplace Gender Equality Agency. In March 2017 the Department of Home Affairs published Multicultural Australia, United, Strong, Successful – Australia’s multicultural statement which is “the Government’s public statement recommitting to multicultural Australia; setting both priorities and strategic directions for the coming years”.53


3.4 Public sector diversity strategies


Papa Pounamu is the Public sector’s diversity and inclusion work programme.54 The programme is designed to help Public sector agency chief executives to achieve particular diversity and inclusion goals and obligations and has been in place since 2017.


Many Public sector agencies have developed organisational diversity and inclusion strategies and action plans. In the 2017-2018 year, 69 percent of the 36 Public sector agencies that completed the [Public] Service Commission’s stocktake survey had a diversity and inclusion strategy or work plan.55 For example the Government Communications Security Bureau and the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service launched a joint diversity and inclusion strategy in April 2018 called Diversity is our first line of defence.56 This strategy noted that:

Diversity is central to innovation. It brings forth new and better ways of doing things, helps us harness the benefit of technology and improve the efficiency and quality of our services. Inclusion is the key to unlocking this potential.

When we value workplace diversity and inclusion, we see benefits such as higher employee engagement, improved performance, greater innovation, retention of talent, improved employee wellbeing, lower levels of poor behaviour such as harassment and bullying and increased attractiveness to potential employees.


Most strategies or plans we reviewed demonstrated an increasing awareness that diversity and inclusion strengthen both employees and the organisation and mean that the communities the Public sector agencies serve are likely to feel more valued, see themselves reflected in policies and programmes and know that their views will be heard and respected.


3.5 Diversity within the Public sector


Overall the New Zealand public service is diversifying. As at June 2019 the demographics of the total public service largely reflected those of the New Zealand population. However, the position is different in respect of chief executives and those in senior leadership positions (first, second and third tiers).


Figure 49: Public service diversity (percentage of staff by ethnicity) as at June 2019 compared to the New Zealand population57
Part 9 Chapter 3 Figure 49
Table 15: Public service agency diversity (percentage of staff by ethnicity) (2019)58
Middle Eastern, Latin American or African
Business Innovation Employment 4229 49.80% 6.50% 7.70% 16.40% 1.50%
Conservation 2384 70.50% 13.20% 1.20% 3.20% 1.90%
Corrections 9633 71.00% 21.30% 11.80% 8.60% 2.10%
Crown Law 184 70.10% 8.20% 2.20% 7.60% 0.50%
Culture and Heritage 145 84.10% 12.40% 3.40% 6.20% 0.70%
Customs 1312 70.70% 9.90% 10.20% 15.40% 0.90%
Defence 147 64.60% 5.60% 2.80% 10.40% 3.50%
Education 3601 73.50% 12.80% 3.70% 8.30% 1.20%
Education Review Office 193 66.00% 21.50% 5.80% 4.70% 0.00%
Environment 386 72.30% 5.90% 1.40% 4.50% 0.80%
Foreign Affairs and Trade 1060 75.70% 11.50% 5.10% 8.10% 1.00%
Health 1205 83.20% 7.60% 4.60% 13.50% 0.70%
Housing and Urban Development 250 61.10% 22.20% 5.60% 11.10% 0.00%
Inland Revenue 5009 64.30% 12.30% 8.20% 16.00% 2.60%
Internal Affairs 2304 73.80% 10.80% 10.40% 11.20% 1.40%
Justice 3584 68.50% 12.90% 9.70% 12.90% 0.20%
Land Information NZ 702 69.40% 9.20% 3.20% 6.20% 1.20%
Te Puni Kōkiri 319 26.60% 74.30% 7.20% 3.40% 0.00%
Oranga Tamariki 4172 63.60% 26.50% 15.10% 8.50% 1.80%
Pacific Peoples 50 10.00% 10.00% 88.00% 4.00% 0.00%
Pike River 26 84.60% 3.80% 0.00% 0.00% 11.50%
Primary Industries 3137 70.20% 5.70% 3.10% 10.70% 1.70%
Prime Minister and Cabinet 264 90.00% 7.70% 2.70% 3.60% 0.00%
Serious Fraud Office 50 78.00% 2.00% 4.00% 10.00% 2.00%
Social Development 7041 61.10% 23.50% 16.30% 14.00% 1.30%
Social Investment Agency 34 85.20% 14.80% 3.70% 7.40% 0.00%
State Services Commission 142 88.80% 10.40% 3.70% 5.20% 0.00%
Stats NZ 1036 74.90% 4.40% 4.20% 19.60% 1.30%
Te Arawhiti 142 77.50% 18.30% 1.40% 2.80% 0.00%
Transport 163 85.90% 3.70% 0.00% 9.20% 0.60%
Treasury 531 81.50% 6.20% 1.40% 11.60% 1.50%
Women 26 61.50% 19.20% 3.80% 15.40% 0.00%
TOTAL PUBLIC SERVICE 54304 67.30% 15.50% 9.20% 11.10% 1.50%


We also reviewed the diversity of the Government Communications Security Bureau, New Zealand Police and the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service as they are not included in the information above. They confirmed to us that they recognised the importance of diversity in their work and they have strategies to reduce barriers in their recruitment practices.


Figure 50: Diversity of intelligence and security agencies and New Zealand Police (percentage of staff by ethnicity) compared to the New Zealand population59
Part 9 Chapter 3 Figure 50


Recruiting people from an ethnic background is not enough if the views and experiences they can contribute to Public sector work are not genuinely valued. For example, we heard from some New Zealand Police staff that recruiting ethnic people into New Zealand Police can seem as though it is “just to fill the numbers or to show the people, but it’s not from the heart”.


3.6  Cultural competency within the Public sector


A diverse and culturally competent workforce means Public sector agencies would more likely have the skills and knowledge to engage meaningfully with communities and be able to design policies and deliver services to equitably meet the needs of all New Zealanders. We were told that Public sector agencies are expected to authorise time for individuals and teams to fully engage in cultural competency learning by increasing awareness, building knowledge, acquiring skills, learning behaviours and developing attitudes that value diversity and inclusion.


There are initiatives underway in Public sector agencies to improve cultural competency. In 2017-2018, 58 percent of relevant Public sector agencies had a programme to build the cultural competency of their employees.60 For example, the Office of Ethnic Communities offers an Intercultural Capability online training course to support the promotion of the benefits of ethnic diversity.61 This introductory course is aimed at increasing people’s cultural understanding to better interact or communicate with people from different backgrounds. The course is made up of four modules and focuses on understanding what culture is and how it impacts on communication and behaviour.


In 2016 and 2017 staff from the Government Communications Security Bureau and the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service attended a two-day external training course called Introduction to Islam and the Muslim World. The course covered basic terminology, major religious holidays and the roles of Sheikhs/Imams and women in Islam. It also outlined the denominations of Islam and the differences in beliefs and practices. Since 2018, the Government Communications Security Bureau staff have also had the option of attending a half-day workshop called Islam and the Muslim World.


New Zealand Police told us they understand that working with ethnic and religious communities requires staff to have a high level of cultural competency and that they are committed to improving staff cultural competency. Some, but limited, time is devoted to building these competencies during new recruit training at the New Zealand Police College. There was no further cultural competency training offered for staff.


3.7 Role of the education system in embracing diversity


New Zealand’s education system provides a foundation set of skills for young people to understand and appreciate ethnic and religious diversity.


The social sciences curriculum is the primary method for teaching students about different cultures, values and diversity. This curriculum covers a wide range of subjects. The learning objectives for National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) Level 3 Social Sciences are to understand how:

  1. cultural practices vary but reflect similar purposes;
  2. early Polynesian and British migrations to New Zealand have continuing significance for tangata whenua and communities;
  3. groups make and implement rules and laws;
  4. people make decisions about access to and use of resources;
  5. people remember and record the past in different ways;
  6. people view and use places differently; and
  7. the movement of people affects cultural diversity and interaction in New Zealand.62


We have not assessed the extent to which the social sciences curriculum reinforces the value and implications of diversity in New Zealand.


The education system includes:

  1. religious studies – learning about the role religion has played in politics, culture, art, history or literature; and
  2. religious instruction – classes run by voluntary groups having an implicit or explicit endorsement of a particular religion and/or encouraging students to engage with and make decisions about accepting it on a personal level.


There are also National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) Levels 1, 2 and 3 achievement standards on religious studies.63 This is quite separate from religious instruction. The rationale for these standards is that:

… they have been developed for a diverse Aotearoa New Zealand and need to be able to be used by all schools and all students – by those with a specific religious affiliation as well as by those who have none but wish to acquire knowledge and understanding of religions.64


We did not review the quality of religious studies in New Zealand schools or the numbers of students who study these subjects. We do note that these studies have the potential to increase the cultural competency of New Zealand school students. If this potential is realised, students will carry these competencies into adulthood.


Religious instruction in primary and intermediate schools has at times been contentious. Primary and intermediate schools are able to offer one hour of religious instruction per week for a maximum of 20 hours per year.65 A student enrolled at a school that is government owned or funded (a state school) can only take part in religious instruction if the student’s parent has approved this in writing to the school principal. Religious instruction exceeding one hour per week may be made available if a majority of parents wish for this to happen and certain other conditions are met.66


3.8 Developments since 15 March 2019


Since the 15 March 2019 terrorist attack, there have been a number of developments reflecting greater priority being given to embracing and supporting New Zealand’s increasing diversity.


Increased focus on diversity and inclusion matters


In August 2020 the Public Service Act 2020 came into force. The purposes of the Act, amongst other things, are:

3 Purposes of this Act

The purposes of this Act are—

  1. to continue the public service and modernise its operation, while recognising and enhancing the non-legislative conventions that it operates under:
  2. to set out the shared purpose, principles, and values of the public service and the people working in it:
  3. to establish organisational forms and ways of working, including across public services, to achieve better outcomes for the public.67



In relation to workforce diversity, the Public Service Act requires Public service chief executives to be guided by the principle that Public service employees should reflect the make-up of society and to ensure that employment policies and practices foster a workplace that is inclusive of all groups.68


The Public Service Act sets out mechanisms for the Public Service Commissioner to:

  1. brief the minister for the public service on the state of the public service once every three years including, amongst other things, an assessment of whether and the extent to which public service agencies are achieving workforce diversity and inclusiveness (which the minister must present to the House of Representatives); 69 and
  2. draft advice and guidance on government workforce policy and, after consulting the affected agencies and other parties that the Commissioner thinks fit, submit it to the minister for consideration.70


Papa Pounamu, the chief executive forum for discussing diversity and inclusion matters, is now led by Naomi Ferguson, Chief Executive of Inland Revenue and Peter Mersi, Chief Executive of the Ministry of Transport. These two chief executives are responsible for leading diversity and inclusion work across the Public service. They support chief executives to meet the obligations and expectations set out in the Public Service Act. The overall aim of the work programme is to consistently grow diversity and inclusion capability. Public sector chief executives have agreed to make the five 2020–2021 Papa Pounamu work programme priorities mandatory within their Public sector agencies. The five priorities are:

  1. Cultural competence: Reflecting the significance of the Crown-Māori relationship and building Public sector cultural competence and confidence, across the broadest range of cultures is integral to ensuring inclusion.
  2. Bias: Addressing bias is a critical factor in ensuring everyone in the Public service has fair opportunity in recruitment, career progression and development opportunities.
  3. Leadership: How chief executives lead across the Public Service matters. Diversity and inclusion capability across the system depends on strong, inclusive leadership.
  4. Build relationships: Inclusion and belonging is dependent upon having a diverse range of supportive relationships in Public sector agency workplaces. Chief executives intentionally draw upon those relationships to create positive change.
  5. Employee-led networks: Having a space and mandate to connect with others with shared lived experiences supports people to bring their whole selves to work. Employee-led networks provide richness to workplaces and contribute valuable subject matter expertise.71


Chief executives have also outlined what the successful implementation of these priorities will look like:

Our high-level success indicators will help us determine how we’re going:

  1. Discrimination is eliminated: all aspects of public service practices are free from bias and discrimination
  2. The Public Service is fully accessible and everyone can participate: the Public Service provides a welcoming environment for everyone
  3. We understand the make-up of our workforce and society: we collect consistent, good quality data
  4. We report on diversity and inclusion progress and revise our plans as needed: we are transparent about progress and whether our actions are generating the desired outcomes.72


These pledges are additional to existing diversity and inclusion commitments that many Public sector agencies have.


In October 2020, Mana Āki, a cultural competence training course was launched by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.73 Mana Āki consists of eight online modules and four team discussions. It takes approximately eight weeks to complete.


Treasury guidance


In August 2020, the Treasury issued guidance74 requiring Public sector agencies to include in their annual reports specific evidence or examples of action within their agency in line with the five Papa Pounamu priority areas outlined above.


Human Rights Commission


In July 2020 the Human Rights Commission launched two anti-racism campaigns, Give No Voice to Racism and Racism is No Joke, the latter an attempt to counter the rise in racism against some communities following the spread of COVID-19.


3.9 Concluding comments


Public discussion on diversity – what it is, its benefits, and what it means for multiculturalism and Te Tiriti o Waitangi – is largely absent.


The Public sector workforce is diversifying, and this must continue to be a priority for all Public sector agencies (especially for those Public sector agencies involved in the counter-terrorism effort, where workforce diversity figures are low and need to be addressed more actively). An aspect of this will be supporting workforce diversity at the first, second and third tiers.


Papa Pounamu is a worthwhile venture that must continue to promote and require diversity of the Public sector’s workforce.


The Public Service Act includes some new mechanisms that will assist with transparency of Public sector actions in relation to their diversity and inclusion workforce strategy and plans. Given the issues in recruiting and retaining a diverse workforce in the Public sector agencies involved in the counter-terrorism effort, annual reports (rather than three-yearly as envisaged by the Act) providing an overview of progress on the Papa Pounamu commitments would be beneficial. They should include the identification of areas where those Public sector agencies are performing well, areas where improvements can be made and critical insights across all agencies about where to direct their efforts. Annual reporting on all Public sector agencies’ progress would be valuable too.


Ensuring that the Public sector workforce is culturally competent must remain a priority. All Public sector agencies require a much better understanding of the nature and extent of New Zealand’s diverse population so they can develop effective and equitable policies and programmes. While work is underway, more could be done to boost these efforts.


New Zealand’s education system provides an opportunity to empower young people by providing them with tools to understand and embrace diversity. School programmes that offer these opportunities should remain a priority for New Zealand’s education system to ensure future generations are equipped to participate fully and flourish in New Zealand’s future.


Since the 15 March 2019 terrorist attack, there have been a number of further developments reflecting greater priority being given to embracing and supporting New Zealand’s increasing diversity. How impactful these initiatives might be is yet to be seen. We make recommendations about embracing diversity in Part 10: Recommendations.


47. New Zealand Government Speech from the Throne https://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/speech-throne-2017.

48. Human Rights Commission website Race Relations https://www.hrc.co.nz/our-work/race-relations-and-diversity/.

49. Human Rights Commission, footnote 48 above.

50. Government of Canada Raison d’être, mandate and role – Canadian Heritage https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/corporate/mandate.html.

51. Government of Norway Department for Equality, Non-discrimination and International Affairs https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/kud/organisation/departments/department-for-equality-non-discrimination-and-international-affairs/id2643750/.

52. Government of Norway The Norwegian Government’s Action Plan against Racism and Discrimination on the Grounds of Ethnicity and Religion 2020-2023 (Extracted Version) (2020) https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/589aa9f4e14540b5a5a6144aaea7b518/action-plan-against-racism-and-discrimination_uu.pdf.

53. Australian Government Multicultural Australia, United, Strong, Successful – Australia’s multicultural statement (2017) https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/mca/Statements/english-multicultural-statement.pdf.

54. Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission Papa Pounamu – Driving diversity and inclusion across the Public Service https://www.publicservice.govt.nz/our-work/diversity-and-inclusion/papa-pounamu-driving-diversity-and-inclusion-across-the-public-service/.

55. State Services Commission What’s happening with diversity and inclusion across the State sector (2017/18) https://gwn.govt.nz/assets/Resources/NZ-resources/DI-snapshot.pdf.

56. Government Communications Security Bureau and New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Diversity is our first line of defence: Diversity and Inclusion Strategy 2017-2020 https://www.gcsb.govt.nz/assets/GCSB-Documents/Diversity-and-Inclusion-Strategy.pdf.

57. Stats NZ Census 2018 https://www.stats.govt.nz/2018-census/; Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission Workforce demographic summary (2019) https://www.publicservice.govt.nz/our-work/workforce-data/workforce-demographic-summary/.

58. Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission, footnote 57 above.

59. Stats NZ, footnote 57 above; Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission, footnote 57 above; New Zealand Police Annual Report 2018/19 (2019) https://www.police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/annual-report-2018-2019.pdf; New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Annual Report 2018/19 (2019) https://www.nzsis.govt.nz/assets/media/NZSIS-Annual-Report-2019.pdf;
Government Communications Security Bureau Annual Report 2018/19 (2019) https://www.gcsb.govt.nz/assets/GCSB-Annual-Reports/GCSB-Annual-Report-2019.pdf.

60. State Services Commission, footnote 55 above.

61. Office of Ethnic Communities Intercultural Capability E-learning https://www.ethniccommunities.govt.nz/resources-2/intercultural-capability/.

62. Ministry of Education website New Zealand Curriculum Online: Social Sciences https://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Curriculum/Social-sciences/Achievement-objectives#collapsible3.

63. Te Kete Ipurangi website Resources for Internally Assessed Achievement Standards: Religious studies https://ncea.tki.org.nz/Resources-for-Internally-Assessed-Achievement-Standards/Social-sciences/Religious-studies.

64. Te Kete Ipurangi website, footnote 63 above.

65. Education and Training Act 2020, section 57.

66. Education and Training Act 2020, section 56.

67. Public Service Act 2020, section 3.

68. Public Service Act 2020, section 75.

69. Public Service Act, Schedule 3, clause 16 (4)(a)(v).

70. Public Service Act, section 96.

71. Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission website, footnote 54 above.

72. Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission website, footnote 54 above.

73. Te Kawa Mataaho Public Service Commission website Cultural Competence https://www.publicservice.govt.nz/our-work/diversity-and-inclusion/papa-pounamu-driving-diversity-and-inclusion-across-the-public-service/cultural-competence/.

74. The Treasury Year End Reporting: Departmental Annual Reports and End-of-Year Performance Information on Appropriations (2020).